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Fact Sheet: Veteran Homelessness
Fact Sheets | April 22, 2015
Updated April 2015
How many homeless veterans are in America?
In January 2014, communities across America identified 49,933 homeless veterans during point-in-time counts, which represents 8.6 percent of the total homeless population. This represents a substantial decrease (67.4 percent) in the number of homeless veterans counted only five years previously in 2009.i Though veterans continue to remain overrepresented in the homeless population in America,ii these recent decreases demonstrate the marked progress that has been made in ending veteran homelessness.
What are the typical demographics of homeless veterans?
Homeless veterans tend to be male (91 percent), single (98 percent), live in a city (76 percent), and have a mental and/or physical disability (54 percent). Black veterans are substantially overrepresented among homeless veterans, comprising 39 percent of the total homeless veteran population but only 11 percent of the total veteran population.
As troops return from operations in Iraq and Afghanistan, the face of veteran homelessness has changed: homeless veterans are increasingly younger, female, and heads of households. Despite this, homeless veterans are still most likely to be males between the ages of 51 and 61 (43 percent)iii and to have served in the Vietnam War.iv And, in the next 10 to 15 years, it is projected that the number of homeless veterans over the age of 55 could increase drastically.v
Why do veterans experience homelessness?
Veterans are more likely than civilians to experience homelessness.vi Like the general homeless population, veterans are at a significantly increased risk of homelessness if they have low socioeconomic status, a mental health disorder, and/or a history of substance abuse. Yet, because of veterans’ military service, this population is at higher risk of experiencing traumatic brain injuries and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), both of which have been found to be among the most substantial risk factors for homelessness.vii Among the recent Iraq and Afghanistan cohort of veterans—who are more frequently female than their older counterparts—an experience of sexual trauma while serving in the military greatly increases the risk of homelessness. Additionally, veterans often experience difficulty returning to civilian life, particularly those without strong social support networks, and may not have skills that can be easily transferred to employment outside of the military.viii Veterans face the same shortage of affordable housing options and living wage jobs as all Americans, and these factors—combined with the increased likelihood that veterans will exhibit symptoms of PTSD, substance abuse, or mental illness—can compound to put veterans at a greater risk of homelessness than the general population.
What federal programs serve homeless veterans?
Homeless veterans can receive assistance both from the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA), provided they have an eligible discharge status, and the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD), regardless of discharge status. In a joint supportive housing program between the two departments (HUD-VASH), Section 8 Housing Choice Vouchers housing vouchers are combined with case management and supportive services at VA medical centers. Since 2008, nearly 70,000 VASH vouchers have been awarded to Public Housing Authorities across the US. Evaluation of the HUD-VASH program has found a number of positive outcomes for participants, including an increase in employment and income, the number of days housed, and social networks.ix Additionally, the HUD-VASH program has been found to have a one-year cost savings of approximately on $6,000 per participant on health services.x
In 2012, VA introduced the Supportive Services for Veteran Families (SSVF) program, with the parallel goals of both preventing veteran homelessness and rapidly re-housing veterans and veteran families who do fall into homelessness. The program provides a variety of time-limited services and financial assistance. In its first two years, the SSVF program aided almost 100,000 individuals in over 61,000 households, spending $2,480 per household; after being housed, only 9.4 percent of veteran families returned to homelessness one year after exiting the program, and only 15.5 percent returned to homelessness two years after exit.xi
SSVF and HUD-VASH are the main response to veteran homelessness in many communities; however, there are numerous other resources for assisting veterans in a housing crisis. The Grant and Per Diem transitional housing program and Domiciliary Care programs funded through the Veterans Health Administration offer temporary assistance to veterans as bridge or crisis housing. The Homeless Veteran Reintegration Program under the Department of Labor assists homeless veterans with employment skills and job searches.
Are we ending veteran homelessness?
In 2009, then-VA Secretary Eric Shinseki, in tandem with President Barack Obama, set forth the audacious goal of ending veteran homelessness by 2015. Current VA Secretary Robert MacDonald also supports this goal. To help secure commitments to this goal, in June 2014 First Lady Michelle Obama announced the Mayors Challenge to End Veteran Homelessness. The First Lady has received pledges from 355 mayors, 7 governors, and 112 county and city officials to end veteran homelessness in their communities by the end of 2015.xii
In January 2015, New Orleans became the first major city to announce that it had ended veteran homelessness. Throughout 2015, other communities are sure to follow. The success of the HUD-VASH, SSVF, and other programs targeted to veterans, combined with the dedication and commitment of America’s communities prove that ending veteran homelessness is possible.
i National Alliance to End Homelessness. The State of Homelessness in America. 2015.
ii Fargo, J., Metraux, S., Byrne, T., Munley, E., Montgomery, A.E., Jones, H., Sheldon, G., Kane, V., & Culhane, D. Prevalence and Risk of Homelessness Among US Veterans. 2012.
iii U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development. The 2013 Annual Homeless Assessment Report to Congress. 2014.
iv National Coalition for Homeless Veterans. Background and Statistics: FAQ About Homeless Veterans. Accessed March 2015.
v Culhane, D., Metraux, S., Byrne, T., Stino, M., & Bainbridge, J. The Age Structure of Contemporary Homelessness. 2013.
vi Fargo, J et al. Prevalence and Risk of Homelessness Among US Veterans. 2012.
vii Metraux, S., Clegg, L., Daigh, J., Culhane, D., & Kane, V. Risk Factors for Becoming Homeless Among a Cohort of Veterans Who Served in the Era of the Iraq and Afghanistan Conflicts. 2013.
viii National Coalition for Homeless Veterans. Background and Statistics: FAQ About Homeless Veterans. Accessed March 2015.
ix National Alliance to End Homelessness. HUD-VA Supportive Housing (HUD-VASH) Policy Brief.
x Byrne, T., Roberts, C., Culhane, D., & Kane, V. Estimating Cost Savings Associated with HUD-VASH Placement. 2014.
xi Byrne, T., Culhane, D., Kane, V., Kuhn, J., & Treglia, D. Predictors of Homelessness Following Exit from the Supportive Services for Veteran Families Program. 2014.
xii U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development. Mayors Challenge: Mayors and Staff. Accessed March 2015.