LGBTQ Youth

Homeless youth that identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgendered, or questioning (LGBTQ) are often at heightened risk of violence, abuse, and exploitation than their heterosexual peers.

National reports have consistently noted the prevalence of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and questioning (LGBTQ) youth in the homeless population. Many experience abandonment and severe family conflict stemming from their sexual orientation and gender identity but other factors are also present: physical abuse, sexual abuse, neglect, substance abuse by parents, and mental health disabilities. A growing body of research bolsters the conclusion that LGBTQ youth represent approximately 20 percent of homeless youth. This is disproportionate to the number of LGBTQ youth (10 percent) in the general population. Conservatively estimated, each year 110,000 LGBTQ youth experience homelessness in America.

LGBTQ youth are particularly vulnerable during episodes of homelessness. Once homeless, LGBTQ youth experience higher rates of physical and sexual assault and higher incidence of mental health problems and unsafe sexual behaviors than heterosexual homeless youth. LGB homeless youth are twice as likely to attempt suicide (62 percent) as their heterosexual homeless peers (29 percent).

Sadly, federal funding is inadequate to reach the majority of LGBTQ homeless youth. The majority of LGBTQ homeless youth never receive access to supportive services or housing opportunities, and most community-based providers serving this population cite lack of bed capacity as their primary concern. Further, less than a dozen local nonprofit organizations nation-wide offer focused services to LGBTQ homeless youth, and most are either on the west or east coasts.

Even when beds are available, inclusive and culturally competent treatment services may not be. Research and federal program reviews do not indicate wide-spread discrimination, but LGBTQ youth still report verbal abuse, harassment and personal judgment from peers and staff in homeless youth shelters and drop-in centers. Reports of discriminatory behavior against transgender youth and agency staff lacking skills to meet the needs of youth with gender identity questions are routine.

Spotlight

Library Resources

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Best Practice | July 26, 2012
This publication consolidates and summarizes recommended practices of previous publications by the Child Welfare League of America, the Family Acceptance Project, the National Alliance to End Homelessness, and many others. The purpose of the report is to provide child welfare agencies and contractors with the necessary tools and guidance to meet the needs of LGBTQ Youth, a vulnerable and underserved population that is over-represented in child welfare systems across the country.
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Solutions Brief | July 2, 2012
The transgender community makes up less than half a percent of the American population but accounts for up to five percent of the homeless youth population. This one-page brief provides guidance for service providers seeking to competently meet the needs of this vulnerable population.
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Best Practice | November 15, 2011
New York City is working to prevent and end homelessness for LGBTQ homeless youth. Recognizing that most runaway and homeless LGBTQ youth will return to their family, New York City is funding two community-based organizations to strengthen youth’s connections to families to prevent and rapidly end their homelessness.
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Other | May 17, 2011
The National Advisory Council on LGBTQ Homeless Youth was created to address these concerns and improve the nation’s response to homelessness among LGBTQ youth.
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Webinar | October 27, 2010
Ending Youth Homelessness - Strategies for Increasing Community Support and Improving Your Ten Year Plan.
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Solutions Brief | October 30, 2009
Homeless youth surviving day-to-day on the streets are at constant risk of solicitation and sexual exploitation. Homeless youth are far more likely to be physically and sexually victimized than their peers who are housed, and they are more likely to experience repeated episodes of sexual assaults. This publication reviews the research and practice implications for community-based services.
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Solutions Brief | April 10, 2009
This two-page brief provides an overview of the prevalence and experience of LGBTQ youth, causal factors, and risks to LGBTQ youth while homeless.
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Solutions Brief | April 10, 2009
This policy brief provides a brief overview of homelessness among LBGT youth and makes recommendations about improving practice, organizational culture, and residential services.
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Solutions Brief | December 8, 2008
This report highlights the incidence of homelessness among LGBTQ youth and the vulnerability of LGBTQ youth to becoming homeless. As compared to their heterosexual peers, LGBTQ youth face a greater risk of exploitation. This brief explores pathways into homelessness for LGBTQ youth and ways to end homelessness for this group. It also includes a chart on the systems components for addressing homelessness among all youth, including LGBTQ youth.